Buddhists (Jodo Shinshu) built a huge temple in Osaka in the 1400’s, but this was attacked and razed to the ground by the Warlord Oda Nobunaga in 1570. In 1583, another of the three famous Warlords of the time, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, had Osaka Castle built there. He died in 1597, and at the battle of Sekigahara (in Gifu prefecture), the third Warlord Tokugawa Ieyasu defeated his enemies and became Shogun of all Japan. He made his capital in Edo (now Tokyo), and established the Tokugawa Shogunate. Under that rule, Osaka castle was attacked and fell to Tokugawa forces in 1615. Tokugawa’s son, the new Shogun, rebuilt Osaka castle in 1620. Much of that construction still stands today, especially the rock walls. The castle itself was rebuilt in 1660, and again in 1868 after a violent end to the Tokugawa era. The Meiji era began, during which time Osaka castle became the Osaka Army Arsenal. Osaka castle has since been restored in 1928, 1945 after World War II, and again in 1997.